La qabsiga Dunida iyo Saameyntooda Kobaca Dhaqaalaha Tansaaniya

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La qabsiga Dunida iyo Saameynta Kobaca Dhaqaalaha Tansaaniya

Caalami ahaan waxaa lagu qeexi karaa inaytahay geedi socodka ku saleysan istiraatiijiyadaha iskaashiga caalamiga ah, ujeedooyinka caalamiga ah in la ballaariyo howlaha ganacsi ama adeeg gaar ah oo la gaarsiiyo heercaalami ah, Caalami ahaan ayaa sahlaysa tikniyoolajiyadda casriga ah

taasoo bulshada kasaacideysa inay maraan horumar bulsho, siyaasadeed iyo dhaqaale. .

Globalisation  dhaqaale waxay xoojisay faquuqida dhaqaalaha sookoraya ee Afrika waxayna kadhigtay inay kutiirsanaato badeecadaha ama adeegyada aasaasiga ah taasoo sicirka iyo dalabku ay si aad ah u go’aamiyaan dadka dibadajooga.

 

Natiijadan waxay horseedday in qaarka mid ah waddamada Afrika loo beddelo saboolnimo ama sinnaanla’aan dhaqaale iyadaoo loo oggolaanayo in kheyraad kooda ay go’aamiyaan waddamada horumaray.

 

Warqaddan waxaan kufalanqeyneynaa saameynta la-qabsiga adduun-weyneee koritaanka dhaqaalahaTansaaniya.

 

Eraybixin: la qabsashada adduunka, saameyntadunidda, kobaca dhaqaalaha, GanacsigaCaalamiga ah, Tansaaniya.

  1. Hordhac

(Kuepper, Juun 19,2017)  Hormarinta waxay saameyn ku yeelatay dhinac kasta oo nolosha aadanaha ee casriga ah waxayna ku sii socotaa xoogga sii kordhaya ee dhaqaalaha adduunka qaarkood.

 

In kasta oo ay jireen dib-u-dhacyo yar oo xagga caalamiyeynta ah, dhaqaaleyahannada badankood waxay isku raaceen inay tahay awood labada faa iido u leh oo aan laga hor istaagi karin dhaqaalaha adduunka.

Intii lagu guda jiray xilliyadii ilaalinta iyo wadaninimada laakiin caalamiyeynta wali waxay sii wadaa xalka ugu ballaaran ee la aqbali karo si loo hubiyo is-waafajinta kobaca dhaqaalaha adduunka.(Kilic) Tusmada Caalamiyeynta Dhaqaalaha: Tusmada waxaa kujira labo-hoosaadyo kuwaas oo ahaa xayiraad iyo socodka dhabta ah.

Socodka dhabta ah waxaa lagu xisaabinayaa wax soosaarka ganacsiga ee boqolleyda ganacsiga, maalgashiga ganacsiga ajaanibta ah (FDI) iyo keydka, maalgashiga galka iyo bixinta dakhliga muwaadiniinta shisheeye Kaalay xayiraadaha waxaa lagu xisaabinayaa caqabadaha qarsoon ee soo dejinta taas oo macnaheedu yahay sicirka canshuuraha, boqolleyda dakhliga hadda ee canshuuraha ganacsiga caalamiga iyo xayiraadaha koontada raasumaalka.

 

Xaddidaadda iyo socodka dhabta ah labaduba waa mid aad u ballaadhan isugeynta dhaqaalaha adduunka waa boqolkiiba 50.Ind Tusaha Isu-duwaha Bulsheed: Tusmada waxaa ku jira 3-hoosaadyo hoose kuwaas oo ah dhaqan u dhawaansho shaqsiyadeed iyo socodsiin macluumaad.

 

Xiriirka shaqsiyeed waxaa lagu xisaabiyay taraafikada taleefanka, dalxiiska caalamiga ah, boqolleyda wax soosaarka guud ee wareejinta iyo dadka ajnabiga ah iyadoo loo eegayo wadarta tirada dadka iyo waraaqaha caalamiga ah ee qofkiiba.

Ex Tusmada Caalamiga ah ee Caalamiyeynta: Tusaha waxaa lagu xisaabiyay 4-hoosaadyo hoose kuwaas oo ah tirada safaaradaha dalka ku yaal, ka mid ahaanshaha ururada caalamiga ah, ka qeyb galka Golaha Amaanka ee Qaramada Midoobay (UN) iyo heshiisyada caalamiga ah.(Ibrahim, Ogosto 2013) Caalamiyeynta waxaa loola jeedaa geedi socodka xoojinta xiriirka siyaasadeed, dhaqaale, dhaqan iyo bulsho ee xuduudaha caalamiga ah iyadoo looga dan leeyahay isku-dhafka jinsi ahaaneed ee aragtida dhaqan-dhaqaale iyo siyaasadeed ee adduunka oo dhan, saameynta weyn ee ay ku leedahay dalalka Afrika iyadoo loo marayo dib-u-habeynta nidaamsan ee wejiyada is dhexgalka ummadaheeda, iyada oo la jabiyo caqabadaha meelaha qaarkood ee ganacsiga, dhaqanka, isgaarsiinta iyo dhowr dhinacyo kale. Nidaamyadani waxay dhiirrigeliyeen taxanaha isugeynta shaqaalaha, qaybinta dhaqaalaha iyo awoodda siyaasadeed; taas oo wadamada Afrika ay u riixeen inay uqalmaan sifooyinka saboolnimada, cudurada, iyo shaqo la’aanta.

 

1.1 Ujeeddo

  • Si loo kormeero in caalamiyaynta ay balaarinayso isdhexgalka maaliyadeed
  • Sidee bay dunidu u saamaysay ganacsiga caalamiga ah
  • Sida ay caalamku u saameynayso maalgashiga tooska ah ee Dibadda
  • Haddii caalamiyeynta ay saameyn ku yeelanayso heerka isbedelka nolosha
  • Sidee caalamiyeynta u saameyn ku yeelanaysaa isbeddelka farsamo

1.2 Kordhinta halista ee la qabsashada Caalamiga ah(Isbedelo Muuqaal Dhaqaale Caalami ah, Janaayo 2017) Khataraha kuxiran aragtida koritaanka adduunka ayaa ah kuwa waaweyn ee ka soo baxaya dhaqaalaha suuqa.

 

Deyn shirkadeed oo sarreeyaü Hoos u dhaca macaashkaü Liito waraaqaha baaqiga bangigaü Hantida socodka qulqulaya iyo xaashida isku dheelitirka ee saameyn ku yeelashada qiime dhaca.Prices qiimaha badeecada oo hooseeya

Kuepper, Juun 19,2017) Qeybtii sanatiijadahalistaadduunkaoo u muuqatainay u muuqatoqaybsiaansinnaynoo u dhexeeyadalalkasookorayaiyokuwahorumaray. Khatarahacaalamiga ah waxaaka mid ah: ØIskutiirsanaan. Caalamkuwuxuuhorseedaaiskutiirsanaantaumadaha, kuwaasooawoodainaysababaanxasiloonidagobolkaamacaalamka, hadiiisbadalkadhaqaaleeedeegaankauukudhamaadosaameyntawadamobadanooiyagakutiirsan (Pharles and Andre 2018) ..Qaranimada.Soobixitaankadowladahaummadaha, shirkadahacaalamiga ah, shirkadahacaalamiga ah amaururada kale eecaalamigaahiwaxaykhatarkunoqonkaraanmadaxbanaanida.Xaaladdaduruufahaayaasababikarta in hoggaamiyeyaashaqaarkoodnoqdaanwaddaniyiin.DistSinnaantaQaybinta. Qeybintafaa’iidooyinkacaadiga ah eecaalamiyeyntaayaasicadaaladdaro ah ugujahaysanummadaamaqofkaugutaajirsan, caalamiyeyntaooabuureysasinaanla’aanweynwaxayna u horseedikartaaiskudhacyocaalami ah iyoqaranahaanbanatiijada.

 

  1. Dib-u-eegistaSuugaanta

Pologeorgis, Maarso 6,2017) Caalamiyeynta waxay ku qasbeysaa ganacsiyada in loo waafajiyo fikradaha istiraatiijiyado kala duwan oo ku saleysan aragtida cusub ee fikirka, oo isku dayeysa inay dheelitirto waxa saxda ah iyo danaha shaqsiyadeed iyo bulshada oo dhan. Isbeddelkan wuxuu awood u leeyahay inuu ku riixo ganacsiyada tartamaya adduunka oo dhan. (UNIVERSITY, May 2012) Saameynta caalamiyeynta waxay saameyn ku yeelatay isbadal balaaran oo ka dhacay wadankeena, Tansaaniya kuma laheyn siyaasad caafimaad miyiga wixii ka horeeyay 1990, laakiin ka dib markii ay ku faafeen saameynta aduunka ee Tansaaniya, waxaa la bilaabay adeegyo caafimaad sanadkii (1990- 2003) muddo. Ujeedada ugu weyn ee fidinta adeegga caafimaadka ee Tansaaniya waxay ahayd in la wanaajiyo wanaagga dadka reer Tansaaniya oo dhan waxaana lagu dhiirrigeliyey nidaamka caafimaadka inuu mas’uul ka noqdo dadka qaarkood.

2.1 CaalamiyeyntaiyoSiyaasaddaDhaqaalahaTansaaniya

(Nord) Marka loo eego koritaanka degdegga ah ee caalamiyeynta iyo yoolalka Millennium-ka ee 2025, Tansaaniya waxay dejisay hadafkiisa / ujeeddadiisa si loo hubiyo in la gaadhay bartilmaameedyada, siyaasaddan ujeeddada dhaqaale sida;Ø Kor u qaad korinta iyo yareynta saboolnimada (Mkukuta)Joogtaynta xasilloonida dhaqaalahaØ Si joogto ah loo xoojiyo dhaqaalaha bulshadaDardargelinta dib-u-habeynta waaxda maaliyaddaØ Horumarinta jawiga ganacsiga2.2 Caalamiyaynta iyo Xaaladda Dhaqaalaha Tansaaniya(Kooxda Horumarinta Afrika, 2018) Kobaca dhaqaalaha ayaa hoos udhacay kobaca tan iyo sanadkii 2016, kadib markii koror dhab ah oo dhanka dhaqaalaha ah uu ugu yaraan 7% gaadhay (2013- 2016) Celcelis ahaan 6.8% ayaa koray seddexdii bilood ee hore iyo labadii bilood ee 2017 waxaana lagu qiyaasay 6.5% sanadka oo dhan. Dhismaha kaabayaasha dhaqaalaha sida isgaarsiinta, waaxda macdanta iyo gaadiidka ayaa ahaa qodobka ugu muhiimsan ee kobaca dhaqaalaha sanadkii 2017. Kobaca dhaqaalaha waa mashruuc sii soconaya ugu yaraan 6.7% iyo 6.9% sanadka 2018 iyo 2019 siday u kala horreeyaan, kuwani waxay ka mid yihiin kuwa ugu wanaagsan

BandhigyadaBarigaAfrika. (Heritage Foundation, 2018) DhibcahaxorriyaddadhaqaaleeeTansaaniyawaxayahayd59.,taasookadhigaysadhaqaalihiisaheerkii 97aad eeuguxaddigabadnaasannadkan 2018. Guudahaandhibcahaayaakukordhay 1.3 dhibcood, iyadaoo loo kordhiyay wax kuoolnimadagarsoorkaiyoxuquuqdeedalahaanshahaookasarreysadhibcahahooseeecanshuurahaculeyskaiyotilmaamayaashaxorriyaddashaqada. Tansaaniyaayaakujirtakaalinta 10aad ee 47 dal ooka mid ah gobolkaSaxarahakahooseeyaeeAfrika, Ganacsigaintabadanmuhiimayey u tahayDhaqaalahaTansaaniya, qiimahaiskudarkaeesoodejintaiyodhoofintawaxay u dhigantaa 37%

Miisaaniyadda.

 

Marka loo eego xaaladda dhaqaale ee hadda jirta 2018, aasaaska hiddaha ayaa soo koobaya darajaynta Gobolka eeisbeddelada dhaqaale, ee ka hooseeya Jadwalka ay muujisay darajooyinka Gobol ee dhaqaalaha. Shaxda 1. Darajaynta gobolka ee dhaqaalaha

1 Mauritius 75.1 0.4 ˄
2 Botswana 69.9 -0.2 ˅
3 Rwanda 69.1 1.5 ˄
4 South Africa 63 0.7 ˄
5 Uganda 62 1.1 ˄
6 Cote d’lvoire 62 -1.0 ˅
7 Sychelles 61.6 -0.2 ˅
8 Bukina Faso 60 0.4 ˄
9 Cabo Verde 60 3.1 ˄
10 Tanzania 59.9 1.3 ˄

 

2.3 Faa’iidada Laqabsiga Caalamiga ah ee Kobaca DhaqaalahaGlobalisation-ka wuxuu u rogay adduunka inuu noqdo hal beel iyadoo ay ugu wacan tahay kororka tikniyoolajiyadda degdegga ah iyo baahida sare ee ka timaadda qof ama waddan. Dhaqaaleyahannada adduunku waxay ku heshiiyeen koritaanka degdegga ah ee caalamiyeynta inay faa iido wanaagsan u leedahay dalka ama dhaqaalaha shaqsiyadeed.Maalgelinta Tooska ah ee Dibadda, Maalgelinta Tooska ah ee Dibadda waxay u egtahay in lagu kordhin doono ugu badnaan cunitaan taas oo ahwaxay muujineysaa koboca dhaqaalaha ee ganacsiga adduunka, maalgashiga tooska ah ee shisheeye wuxuu waxbadan ka caawinayaa kor u qaadista wareejinta tikniyoolajiyadda, wareejinta warshadaha ee dalka dhaqaalaha.Suuqyo wax ku ool ah, suuqyo wax ku ool ah ayaa ka fiirsada waxa dhaqaalaha ku dadaalayo. Calaamadda caadiga ah ee muujisay suuqa ayaa ka waxtar badan marka ay jiraan isu-dheellitirnaan iibsadaha iyo iibiyaha inay diyaar u yihiin inay bixiyaan ama u iibiyaan  wanaagsan ama adeeg suuq gaar ahCusbooneysiinta Teknolojiyada. Caalamiyeynta waxay horseed u tahay kordhinta tartanka warshadaha taasoo kicinaysa hal abuurka horumarka tikniyoolajiyadda cusub, kororka heerka maalgashiga shisheeye ee tooska ah ayaa si toos ah u hagaajiyay wax soo saarka tikniyoolajiyadda dalkaDhaqaalaha Miisaanka. Shirkadaha waaweyni waxay awood u siinayaan inay xaqiijiyaan miisaanka dhaqaalaha ee suuqa qaar kaas oo gacan ka geysan lahaa yareynta qiimaha iyo kharashka isticmaalka, taas oo u rogi karta taageerada sii kordhinta kobaca dhaqaalaha.Tartan kordhay, kor u qaadista tartamayaal badan oo soo saara wax soo saar tayo leh iyo adeeg si ay ugu dagaallamaan suuq gaar ah oo ku yaal, shirkad kasta waxay ku qasbanayd inay si joogto ah u eegto habka loo hagaajiyo adeeggooda iyo alaabtooda si ay u abuuraan macaamiisha daacad u ah.Shaqada oo yaraatay, Saamaynta shirkadaha tooska ah ee ajnebiga ah ee leh teknolojiyad cusub inay horumariyaan sida Tansaaniya, waxay gacan ka geysan doontaa kordhinta heerka fursadaha shaqo ee qaybo badan, shaqaalaha shirkadaha gudaha waxay awoodeen inay helaan xoogaa tababar ah oo ay ku shaqeeyaan farsamada mashiinka casriga ah ee soo saarista wax soo saar tayo leh. .Qaabka fikirkaIsbeddelayaasha madaxbannaan ee mashruucu waa kobaca degdegga ah ee adeegga caalamiyeynta oo ku lug leh is-dhexgalka maaliyadeed, Ganacsiga Caalamiga ah, Maalgashiga Dibadda ee Tooska ah (FDI), Isbeddelka farsamada, heerka nolosha ee isbeddelka ah. Isbeddelka ku tiirsan daraasadda ayaa ah Kobaca Dhaqaalaha Laga soo bilaabo qaab-dhismeedka qaabka fikradeed ee cilmi-baarista kor ku xusan mala-awaalka ugu weyn ayaa soo socda. H1-Isdhexgalka maaliyadeed wuxuu si togan ula xiriiraa Kobaca DhaqaalahaGanacsiga H2-Caalamku wuxuu si togan ula xiriiraa Kobaca DhaqaalahaH3-Maalgelinta Tooska ah ee Dibadda (FDI) waxay si togan ula xiriirtaa Kobaca dhaqaalahaH5-Isbedelka heerka nolosha wuxuu si togan ula xiriiraa Kobaca Dhaqaalaha3. Habka Cilmi Baarista
Xogtaaasaasiga ah iyo tan dugsigasarelabadabawaa la sooaruuriyaysi loo dhameystiromashruucancilmibaarista ah, halkaasooxogtaaasaasiga ah lagahelayberrinaintiilagujiraydaraasaddawaqtigaee ay sameeyeencilmibaareyaashaiyoxogtalabaadnalagahelaydukumiintiyadarasmiga ah eekaladuwan. Cilmibaarayaashuwaxay u magacaabeen 150 muunaddadweynewaxaanalagugaadhayhababtijaabo ah ooaankalasooclahayn.Cilmibaarayaashuwaxayqaabeeyeensu’aal furan iyo mid xiraniyadoo loo marayogoogle doc form kaasoo u oggolaadayjawaab-bixiyeinuusitoos ah u soogalooobuuxiyofoomkasu’aalahagaarka ah oo dib loogusoodirokhadkatooska ah.Xidhiidhkuwuxuuahaa mid sahlanoo loo dirodhammaanjawaabbixiyaashaiyadaoo loo marayowarbaahintabulshada.Xogtawaxaalagusookoobayiyadaoo loo marayohabkatiradaoolagufalanqeeyayiyadoo la adeegsanayosoftiweerkakashaqeyntaxogtaee loo yaqaan SPSS.Cilmi-baareayaasu’aalaha u diyaariyeyiyadoo loo eegayoheerkacabirkaeekacaawinayajawaab-bixiyuhuinuufuliyosu’aashasidahooskamuuqata:Shaxda 2. Miisaanka heerka shanta dhibic

Rating Scales
1

Question

High Dissatisfied

2

 

Dissatisfied

3

 

Partially Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

5

 

High Satisfied

  1. Raadinta iyo Wadahadalka4.1 ansaxnimada iyo kalsoonida(Thanasegaran) Dhismaha ansaxnimada iyo talaabooyinka lagu kalsoonaan karo waxay si toos ah uga walaacsan yihiin xiriirka aragtiyeed ee doorsoomaha. Qiyaasta ay leegtahay ‘waxay ku dhaqantaa’ habka ay u dhiseyso culeysyo cabir ah oo ay tahay in lagu dhaqmo marka la fiiriyo talaabooyinka la dejiyay dhismooyinka kaleShaxda 3. Tirakoobka kalsoonida
Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.846 .836 6

Marka loo eego shuruudaha lagu ogaanayo nooca ugu wanaagsan ee loo yaqaan ‘Cronbach’s Alpha’, alfa-ga ugu sarreeya waa inuu noqdaa 1.0 waana inuu ka weynaadaa 0.5, 1.0 <A> 0.5. Cronbach’s Alpha ee mashaariicdeenu waxay muujiyeen 0.846 oo macnaheedu yahay 80% isku darka 6 shey oo doorsoomayaal ah, Cronbach’s Alpha ee mashruuceena ayaa tilmaamaya dhibcaha dhabta ah ee isku xirnaanta gudaha la isku halleyn karo

 

Shaxda 4. Xiriirka

T.change I.Trade F.Integration FDI S.living E.Growth
Pearson Correlation 1 -.056 -.077 -.061 -.039 -.116
T.change        Sig.(2-tailed) .499 .349 .460 .638 .158
N 150 150 150 150 150 150
Pearson Correlation -.056 1 .859** .845** .826** .544**
I.Trade           Sig.(2-tailed) .499 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150 150
Pearson Correlation -.077 .859** 1 .842** .798** .516**
F.Integration Sig.(2-tailed) .349 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150 150
Pearson Correlation -.061 .845** .842** 1 .885** .556**
FDI                Sig.(2-tailed) .460 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150 150
Pearson Correlation -.039 .826** .798** .885** 1 .564**
S.living          Sig.(2-tailed) .638 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150 150
Pearson Correlation -.116 .544** .516** .556** .564** 1
E.Growth      Sig.(2-tailed) .158 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150 150
  1. DoodiyoGunaanad

Marka loo eego jawaab celinta aan ka helnay jawaab bixiyaasha, waxaan u kuur galnay kuwooda    tirakoob ahaan isku xirnaanta isdhexgalka Maaliyadeed, Ganacsiga Caalamiga ah, Maalgashiga Tooska ah ee Dibadda (FDI), Isbedelka salka iyo nolosha marka laga reebo isbadalka farsamo ee muujiyey in xiriir aan qiimo laheyn Kobaca Dhaqaalaha. Marka cilmi-baaraha wuxuu iska indhatirayaa inuu xuso isbeddelka farsamo ee inta badan cunsur u ah kobaca dhaqaalaha. Cilmi baarayaashu waxay kula talinayaan dowladda inay dadaal dheeri ah ka bixiso ganacsiga caalamiga ah, isdhexgalka maaliyadda, maalgashiga tooska ah ee shisheeyaha (FDI) iyo bedelida heerka nolosha ee Ec nomic Growth. Sidoo kale, cilmi baarayaashu waxay siinayaan dowladda Tansaaniya dadaalkooda ku aaddan dib-u-dhiska siyaasadaha kaabayaasha (macdanta, isgaarsiinta, gaadiidka) oo lagu tilmaamay  sanadkii 2017. (UNIVERSITY, May 2012) Caalamiyeynta oo abuureysa shaqaalaynta Maalgashiga dadku waxay ku heleen fursado shaqo oo ka caawiya inay hagaajiyaan dadkaheerka nolosha ee dalka. Tusaale ahaan, shirkadaha isgaarsiinta shisheeye sida Vodacom, Airtel,Zantel iyo Tigo waxay shaqaaleeyeen kumanaan reer Tansaaniya ah kuwaas oo ka caawiya iyaga inay horumariyaan heerka nolosha dadka ku nool magaalooyinka

References

A shifting Global Economic Landscape. (January 2017). World Economic Landscape. Africa Development Group. (2018). African Economic Outlook(AEO).

Heritage Foundation.(2018). 2018 index of Economic Freedom.

Ibrahim, A. A. (2013). The Impact of Globalization on Africa.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(15).

Kilic, C. (n.d.). Effects of Globalization on Economic Growth: Panel Data Analysis for Developing Countries.

Economic Insights – Trends and Challenges, 1-11.

Kuepper, J. (2017). Globalization and its impacts on Economic Growth. Nord, R. (n.d.). Economic Policy Objectives and Challenges in Tanzania. Pologeorgis, N. (2017). How Globalization Affects Developed countries.

Pharles, S and Andre, C. (2018). Environmental impacts of globalization in Tanzania:

Assessing its effects and measures taken by the Government of Tanzania. Int. J. Polit. Sci. Develop. 6(1) 1-15

 

 

Thanasegaran, G. (n.d.). Reliability and Validity issues in Research.

University, C. A. (2012). What are the impact of globalization in Tanzania rural and urban setting?

 

 

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